Posts Tagged ‘age’

Racism and discrimination everyday practices in Denmark – ENAR

Monday, November 9th, 2009

By Michael de Laine, Copenhagen, 9th November 2009

Racism and discriminatory practices take place every day, says ENAR, the European Network Against Racism, in its 2008 Shadow Report, ‘Racism in Denmark’. Many academic surveys, reports from distinguished organisations and NGOs have documented the unequal treatment given minorities in Denmark.

In its statistics, the Danish government describes non-European communities in a particular manner, according to ENAR, the European Network Against Racism.

Discriminated groups vary in ethnicity, cultures and religions, but, in the last few years, an open and hostile atmosphere towards Muslim groups has become very visible in all spheres of life, the organisation says.

Racism and discriminatory practices take place every day, as evidenced by many academic surveys, reports from distinguished organisations and NGOs, which have documented beyond doubt the unequal treatment given to minorities.

However, the ENAR report states, the single most discriminated area is the labour market – employment opportunities, apprenticeships and the negative views of employers.

In another discriminating area, housing and accommodation, “minorities are often directed by housing societies towards places and quarters where the percentage of socially deprived Danes and various minority groups is already high,” ENAR states. “Having done that, the authorities then call those areas ‘ghettoes’.”

In education there is an important focus on the Danish language, while mother-tongue education for minority children is almost abolished. There are also efforts to spread minority children in as many schools as possible in the name of integration. “The Danish education system is thus becoming a tool in the hands of anti-minority political forces,” the anti-racism organisation says.

In the health sector, children of asylum-seeking families are suffering while interpreting facilities are non-existent for women and elderly sick patients.

The relationship between the police and minority youth deteriorated in 2008 due to the increasing use of racial profiling by the authorities in stop-and-search raids in the neighbourhood, ENAR says. Police arrogance has caused friction and stress. Although Danish society has been relatively peaceful until recently, racial violence and crime have accelerated steadily, causing deaths and shootings.

“Right-wing movements take advantage of the negative atmosphere and recruit new members for their cause,” the ENAR report states. “Harassment of Muslim women and Jewish students is a cause for alarm.”

When it comes to accessing goods and services in the private sector, discrimination in discos, bars and entertainment places is still very widespread and out of the control of authorities.

In public services, small minority children are forcefully removed from homes and taken to Danish foster parents – a big issue that minorities feel very strongly about, the organisation says in its report.

“The media are often hostile towards non-European minorities, especially towards Muslim communities,” ENAR says. “The republishing of the caricatures of the Prophet Mohammed in 2008, splashing headlines in terror suspect cases before the trial or conviction, giving the green light to anti-minority politicians and focusing excessively on the negative stories have created a very bad image of minorities. Media debates as usual focused on Islam, the headscarf, radicalisation, and terrorism by Muslims.”

According to ENAR’s shadow report 2008 on Denmark, such developments have a political and legal context. “In the absence of strong legal protective measures against racism and discrimination and the free reign for politicians to say what they like, minorities have great difficulty in attaining equal rights and opportunities,” ENAR states.

Talking to NGOs, it became clear to ENAR that, in recent years, civil society, which was very active until 2001, has lost hope and faith in a positive change.

“On the anti-discrimination front, the government refuses to officially acknowledge the existence of racism in Denmark,” ENAR says. The government’s action plans “are full of talk about diversity and mono-cultural integration without a concentrated effort to tackle racism and discrimination,” it adds. “The name of the newly established Board of Equal Treatment (which does not deal with racism or discrimination) is a good example. Most of the new laws concerning minorities are actually new restrictions on citizenship, family reunions, asylum and social rights.”

According to ENAR, Denmark has been repeatedly criticised by EU institutions and international organisations, but, due to the lack of sanctions, the government has dismissed all valid criticism.

Successful integration has been linked by the government to the end of third-country nationals entering Denmark. This policy has had the desired effects by reducing asylum and family reunions from Asia, Africa and the Middle East, especially Muslim countries.

“The whole burden of integration has been put on the shoulder of ethnic minorities who are asked to adopt the Danish way of living by discarding their own values and traditions,” ENAR states in the report.

The anti-racism organisation notes that there are few practical remedies against racism and racial profiling, but there is a great focus on anti-terrorism.

Danish anti-terrorism laws are stricter than EU laws, ENAR says, and some cases in 2008 proved that many people were arrested without any substantial proof.

“Such drastic measures have alienated and angered Muslim communities who find themselves targeted because of suspicions and actions of a very tiny number of Muslim individuals,” the organisation adds. “The result of these negative developments is social exclusion, increase in poverty, break up of trust and the ‘us’ versus ‘them’ divide.”

ENAR says it believes that this divide will widen if the Danish media, politicians and local authorities do not come to realise that ethnic and religious minorities are here to stay and that an intercultural society with equal rights and opportunities is the best guarantee for an inclusive society.

“2008 was the European Year for Intercultural Living,” the organisation says. “Minorities hope that the Danish media, politicians and authorities have learnt from this message to not only divert their attention from Danish values but to focus on universal values of respect, accept and understanding for all.”

Many victims of discrimination don’t know their rights

Wednesday, June 24th, 2009

By Michael de Laine, Copenhagen, 24th June 2009

Many victims of discrimination are unaware of their rights and do now know where to lodge complaints, according to the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. A lack of data collection, poor rights awareness and under-reported discrimination and crime mean the true extent and nature of fundamental rights violations cannot be determined.

An overwhelming number of people are not aware of their rights should they be a victim of discrimination,” the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) says in its Annual Report 2009, released today.

The FRA said its recent EU-MIDIS (Minorities and Discrimination) survey showed that only 39% of those minorities interviewed were aware of a law that forbids discrimination against people on the basis of ethnicity when applying for a job.

At the same time, only 20% knew of an organisation that offers support or advice to people who have been discriminated against.

There is an urgent need for better information,” said FRA director Morten Kjaerum. “Most victims of discrimination are not aware that what is being done to them is illegal. At the same time, many do not know how or where to file a complaint. As a consequence, the dark figure of discrimination is extremely high.

Governments have an obligation to inform everyone of their rights, and ensure access to justice in practice, not just on paper.”

Anastasia Crickley, who chairs the FRA management board, said, “There are still many gaps in legal protection against discrimination. Why should it be possible to sue a landlord for discriminating against someone on the basis of ethnicity or gender but not because of discrimination due to religion, age, disability or sexual orientation? Why are disabled people protected from discrimination in employment but not to the same degree in education?”

In June 2008, the European Commission published a proposal for a directive to close these gaps and extend protection against discrimination (on the grounds of religion, belief, disability, age, and sexual orientation) currently covering the employment sector to areas of social security, healthcare, education and access to and supply of goods and services.

Several FRA reports have been used to underpin this European Commission initiative for a new anti-discrimination directive, such as its legal study and social science report on homophobia in Europe.

I urge EU governments to adopt the European Commission’s proposal to extend protection against discrimination to cover all grounds,” said Crickley.

The poor rights awareness coincides with insufficient recording and reporting mechanisms of discrimination, the agency said.

FRA noted that 15 of the EU’s 27 Member States have either a complete absence of publicly available official criminal justice data on racist crime, or only limited reporting on a few court cases.

Nine Member States can be categorised as having a ‘good’ data collection mechanism on racist crimes, and data collection mechanisms can be considered ‘comprehensive’ in only three Member States.

Many EU Member States still have insufficient or no official criminal justice data on racist crime,” said Kjaerum. “This is symptomatic of a lack of political focus and resource allocation to address the problem.”

He added that insufficient or non-existent data collection, combined with poor rights awareness and the under-reporting of discrimination and crime, results in a situation where the true extent and nature of fundamental rights violations cannot be determined.

Collecting data is not a solution in itself, but it serves to generate an understanding of the nature and extent of fundamental rights violations,” the FRA director said. “Effective, targeted policies at Member State level can only be developed with an accurate knowledge of the situation.”

While noting ‘encouraging developments in some EU Member States with respect to improvements in data collection, particularly on a localised level,’ Kjaerum said national practices regarding the collection and use of data remain varied across Member States.